Male gender and diabetes history showed an association with VDS. Diabetes was previously shown to be associated with ICACs as well as with a greater extent of intracranial atherosclerosis and a higher risk of recurrent stroke and vascular death among Asian patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis [16, 27, 28]. Apart from previous reports, age did not contribute to the risk of developing VDS in our sample, and the association with statin therapy after adjustment was lost. In addition, apart from previous reports that showed a positive association with hypertension and ICACs, we did not find such association between the ICACs groups [16, 23, 29]. As already reported, ICAS in our study was significantly more present in male patients than female patients . In our study, male patients had an unfavourable risk profile with a lower HDL, higher TG, and smoking history. Male gender and a high TG are associated with coronary artery calcifications .
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